十九世纪照顾英国孤儿总数超过万人的乔治·慕勒

乔治·慕勒[编辑]
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乔治·慕勒(德语:George Müller,1805年9月27日-1898年3月10日),19世纪英国基督教弟兄会的教会领袖之一,在布里斯托开办孤儿院,一生照顾的孤儿总数超过1万人。他以对上帝的信心和为他照顾的儿童提供教育著称,在这一点上,他被有些人责备将这些可怜人提高到了本不该属于他们的生活水平。

生平[编辑]
青年时期[编辑]
George Muller1805年9月27日,慕勒出生在普鲁士王国,靠近哈伯斯塔特(Halberstadt)的一个村庄克鲁本司戴特(Kroppenstaedt),父亲是当时国产税局的一个收税人。他原本是一行为荒唐的青年,与他后来圣洁的基督徒形象截然相反,他曾是一个惯偷、骗子和赌徒,曾几次偷过他父亲代保管的政府公款。在他14岁时他母亲的临终之夜,他正在和朋友玩牌赌博,然后喝得酩酊大醉。2年后(1821年),他在马格德堡的教会学校就读时,用谎言获得导师的准许请假,与一名女子住在不伦瑞克的高级旅馆约会,直到耗尽所有,被旅馆告发,因诈骗罪被送进监狱几个月。慕勒的父亲希望供他去接受宗教教育,以使他能在国立的路德会中得到一个有利的神职位置。他在哈勒大学学习神学。这时慕勒仍旧习不改,当他债台高筑,津贴不够偿付之时,便造成自己遭遇偷窃的假象,博取同学们的同情,骗取大家捐款补偿他的损失。就在这时,他遇到一个男同学培德(Beta),1825年11月中旬一个周六的晚上,培德和他一起参加了一个在魏格纳(Wagner,后来加入普利茅斯弟兄会)家中举行的基督徒聚会。他在那里受到热诚的欢迎,并开始按时阅读圣经,和参加聚会的其他人讨论基督教。他很快戒掉了酗酒和撒谎,并开始希望成为一名传教士。他开始定期在附近的路德会教堂讲道,并继续和大学中那一群增长中的非国教信徒一起聚会。

早期工作[编辑]
1827年8月,慕勒开始热心国外布道事业,加入了不列颠大陆宣道会(Continental Society of Britain)。1828年,他接受伦敦会(London Missionary Society)的建议,于1828年3月19日抵达伦敦,进入神学院受训6个月,然后在英国的犹太人中工作。但在1829年5月中旬,慕勒生了一场重病,当时他甚至都没有想到能够活下来。当他痊愈时,他奉献自己服务于上帝的旨意。不久他离开了伦敦会,确信上帝会为他从事基督教工作满足他的需要。他成为德文郡Ebenezer会堂的牧师,不久和玛丽·戈洛弗(最早在都柏林开始“奉主名聚会”的A.N.戈洛弗的姐妹)结婚。在他担任这所教堂牧师期间,他拒绝领取固定的薪水,相信那种实行会导致教会成员耗尽他们的责任,而不是出于自愿。他还废除了教堂长凳的租金,指责这给了富人不公平的显赫。
1832年,慕勒迁居到港口城市布里斯托(Bristol),开始和革拉克(Henry Craik)一起,在伯赛大会所(Bethesda chapel)工作。他直到去世,一直在此讲道,同时还献身于其他工作。
1834年,他建立了国内和海外圣经知识协会(Scripture Knowledge Institution for Home and Abroad),目标是援助基督教学校和传教士,以及分发圣经。这个组织不接受政府支持,只接受主动送来的馈赠,到慕勒去世时共收到并支付出去150万英镑($2,718,844 美元),这些钱主要用来支持孤儿院,并分发了将近200万本圣经和宗教书籍。这些钱还用来支持全世界的其他传教士,例如中国内地会的创始人戴德生。
创办孤儿院[编辑]
orphnage1832年2月和1835年11月20日,慕勒两次读到法兰克(August Hermann Francke)的传记,法兰克从1696年起在普鲁士的哈勒(Halle)创办“孤儿之家”,并从不向人要求捐款。慕勒也产生了开办孤儿院的心愿。由于在1835年12月5日,他读到圣经中诗篇81篇10节——“你要大大张口,我就给你充满”而大受鼓励,加上革拉克的赞同,于是在12月9日,经过众人的考虑和祷告,终于做出了决定。会后陆续有信徒主动奉献钱财和家具。
慕勒夫妇照顾孤儿的工作开始于1836年4月11日,起初是在布里斯托(Bristol)自己的家中做准备工作,以容纳30个女孩。同年11月28日,在同一条街又租房开始了第二间孤儿院。不久,又布置了2所房子,需要照顾的儿童总数达到130人。1845年,由于人数继续增长,慕勒决定设计一所独立的建筑,以容纳300个孩子。1849年6月18日,在Ashley Down 28,000 m²的土地上,建成了这所孤儿院。到1856年5月26日,又兴建了第二院,可容纳400人。到1870年,总共已建立了5所孤儿院,收容超过2,000名孤儿。最后全部孤儿人数达到10,024名。维持孤儿院开支的捐款总数,超过了150万英镑。
尽管这5座孤儿院开支浩大,仅建筑花费总数就超过10万英镑,但慕勒的原则是,从不向人要求捐款,从不把任何孤儿院的需要告诉外人,更从不借债,他只做一件事:向上帝祷告,但每次的帮助总是在最需要的时刻由各方自动送来,没有一次叫孤儿们挨饿。许多次,他在离给孩子开饭的时间已经只有一个小时的时候收到主动送来的食物,进一步加强了他对上帝的信心。每天早晨进早餐后是读圣经和祷告的时间,每个孩子在离开孤儿院时会得到一本圣经。孩子们的穿着和教育都很好,慕勒甚至雇佣了一名学校督学以保持高的水准。事实上,许多人声称附近工厂和矿山无法获得足够的工人,因为他为孩子们长大后离开孤儿院提供的职位是保安学徒、职业训练和家庭服务。 这所孤儿院现在还是英国布里斯托城最大的孤儿院。不过在1958年,孤儿院的总部迁离Ashley Down,原址改为一所大学。孤儿院原址旁的马路,仍称作慕勒路(Muller Road),是布里斯托城最长的一条没有酒吧的街道。
传教[编辑]
他的第一个妻子在1870年去世,1872年,他与慕姗娜·桑格结婚。1875年,他70岁,慕勒开始了一次17年之久的传教旅程。在这段时间,他前往美国、印度、澳大利亚、日本、中国和其他将近40个国家讲道。他的旅行里程总计超过20万英里,这在航空时代来临以前,是一个不可思议的成就。他的语言能力允许他用英语、法语和德语讲道,他的讲道词被翻译成超过一打其他语言。 1892年,他回到英格兰,1898年3月10日早晨,送茶给慕勒的人发现93岁的他已经安然离世。此前他一直身体强健,照常工作。

George Müller
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For people with a similar name, see Georg Müller (disambiguation) and George Mueller (NASA).
George Ferdinand Müller

Born
Johann Georg Ferdinand Müller
27 September 1805
Kroppenstedt, Kingdom of Prussia (now Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)
Died
10 March 1898 (aged 92)
Bristol, England
Nationality
Prussian
Education
Cathedral Classical School, Halberstadt
Occupation
Evangelist and missionary, Director of Orphan Houses
Spouse(s)
Mary Groves (7 Oct 1830 – 6 Feb 1870, her death)
Susannah Grace Sanger (30 Nov 1871 – 13 Jan 1894, her death)
Children
Lydia (17 Sep 1832 – 10 Jan 1890); Elijah (19 Mar 1834 – 26 Jun 1835). Two other children were still-born, 9 Aug 1831 and 12 Jun 1838.
Parent(s)
Johann Friedrich Müller (Oct 1768 – 20 Mar 1840), Sophie Eleonore Müller (née Hasse; Apr 1771 – 16 Jan 1820)
George Müller (born Johann Georg Ferdinand Müller, 27 September 1805 – 10 March 1898) was a Christian evangelist and the director of the Ashley Down orphanage in Bristol, England.
He cared for 10,024 orphans during his lifetime,[1][2] and provided educational opportunities for the orphans to the point that he was even accused by some of raising the poor above their natural station in British life. He established 117 schools which offered Christian education to more than 120,000.

Early work[edit]
In 1829, Müller offered to work with Jews in England through the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews. He arrived in London on March 19 of that year, but by mid-May, he fell ill and did not think that he would survive. He was sent to Teignmouth to recuperate and, while there he met Henry Craik, who became his lifelong friend.[3] Müller returned to London in September, but after ten days started to feel unwell again. He blamed his failing health on his having been confined to his house because of his studies. He asked the Society to send him out to preach but received no reply. By the end of November he became doubtful whether the Society was the right place for him and on 12 December made the decision to leave but to wait for a month before writing. Müller returned to Exmouth in East Devon, England on 31 December for a short holiday and preached at various meetings while there. He wrote to the Society in early January, requesting that they might consider allowing him to remain with them if they would allow him “to labour in regard to time and place as the Lord might direct me”. This they refused to do at a meeting on 27 January 1830, communicating this to Müller in writing, and thus bringing to an end his association with the London Society. He moved from Exmouth to Teignmouth and preached several times for Craik, which led to a number of the congregation asking him to stay and be the minister of Ebenezer Chapel in Shaldon, Devon, on a salary of £55 per annum. On 7 October 1830, he married Mary Groves, the sister of Anthony Norris Groves. At the end of October, he renounced his regular salary, believing that the practice could lead to church members giving out of duty, not desire. He also eliminated the renting of church pews, arguing that it gave unfair prestige to the wealthy (based primarily on James 2:1–9).[4]
Müller moved to Bristol on 25 May 1832 to begin working at Bethesda Chapel. Along with Henry Craik, he continued preaching there until his death, even while devoted to his other ministries. In 1834, he founded the Scriptural Knowledge Institution for Home and Abroad, with the goal of aiding Christian schools and missionaries; distributing the Bible and Christian tracts; and providing Day-schools, Sunday-schools and Adult-schools, all upon a Scriptural foundation.[5] By the end of February 1835, there were five Day-schools – two for boys and three for girls.[6] Not receiving government support and only accepting unsolicited gifts, this organisation received and disbursed £1,381,171[1] – around £113 million in today’s terms[7] – by the time of Müller’s death, primarily using the money for supporting the orphanages and distributing about 285,407 Bibles,[1] 1,459,506 New Testaments,[1] and 244,351 other religious texts,[1] which were translated into twenty other languages.[8] The money was also used to support other “faith missionaries” around the world, such as Hudson Taylor.[9] The work continues to this day.
Orphanages[edit]
The work of Müller and his wife with orphans began in 1836 with the preparation of their own rented home at 6 Wilson Street, Bristol for the accommodation of thirty girls. Soon after, three more houses in Wilson Street were furnished, not only for girls but also for boys and younger children, eventually increasing the capacity for children who could be cared for to 130.
In 1845, as growth continued, the neighbours complained about the noise and disruption to the public utilities, so Müller decided that a separate building designed to house three hundred children was necessary, and in 1849, at Ashley Down, Bristol, the new home opened. The architect commissioned to draw up the plans asked if he might do so gratuitously.[10] By 26 May 1870, 1,722 children were being accommodated in 5 homes, although there was room for 2,050 (No 1 House – 300, No 2 House – 400, Nos 3, 4 and 5 – 450 each). By the following year, there were 280 orphans in No 1 House, 356 in No 2, 450 in Nos 3 and 4, and 309 in No 5 House.[11]
Through all this, Müller never made requests for financial support, nor did he go into debt, even though the five homes cost more than £100,000 to build. Many times, he received unsolicited food donations only hours before they were needed to feed the children, further strengthening his faith in God. Müller was in constant prayer that God touch the hearts of donors to make provisions for the orphans. For example, on one well-documented occasion, thanks was given for breakfast when all the children were sitting at the table even though there was nothing to eat in the house. As they finished praying, the baker knocked on the door with sufficient fresh bread to feed everyone, and the milkman gave them plenty of fresh milk because his cart broke down in front of the orphanage.[12] In his autobiographical entry for February 12, 1842, he wrote:
A brother in the Lord came to me this morning and, after a few minutes of conversation gave me two thousand pounds for furnishing the new Orphan House … Now I am able to meet all of the expenses. In all probability I will even have several hundred pounds more than I need. The Lord not only gives as much as is absolutely necessary for his work, but he gives abundantly. This blessing filled me with inexplicable delight. He had given me the full answer to my thousands of prayers during the [past] 1,195 days.[13]

Receipt form issued by George Müller
Müller never sought donations from specific individuals and relied on the Almighty for all of his needs. He asked those who did support his work to give a name and address so that he could prepare a receipt. The receipts were printed with a request that the receipt be kept until the next annual report was issued so that the donor might confirm the amount reported with what he had given. The wording in the image reads: “Owing to the great increase of my work, I have found it necessary to authorize two of my assistants (Mr. Lawford and Mr. Wright) to sign receipts for donations, if needful, in my stead. Donors are requested, kindly to keep the receipts and to compare them with the “Supplement” to the Report, which records every donation received, so that they may be satisfied that their donations have been properly applied.-The “Supplement” is sent with the Report to every Donor who furnishes me with his or her name and address.-I would earnestly request all Donors (even those who feel it right to give anonymously) to put it in my power to acknowledge their donations at the time they come to hand; and should any Donor, after having done this, not receive a printed receipt within a week, they would much oblige me by giving me information at once. This interval must, of course, be extended in the case of Donors who send from places out of the United Kingdom. George Müller”. Every single gift was recorded, whether a single farthing, £3,000 or an old teaspoon.[14] Accounting records were scrupulously kept and made available for scrutiny.[15]
Every morning after breakfast there was a time of Bible reading and prayer, and every child was given a Bible upon leaving the orphanage, together with a tin trunk containing two changes of clothing. The children were dressed well and educated – Müller even employed an inspector to maintain high standards. In fact, many claimed that nearby factories and mines were unable to obtain enough workers because of his efforts in securing apprenticeships, professional training, and domestic service positions for the children old enough to leave the orphanage.
Evangelism[edit]
On 26 March 1875, at the age of 70 and after the death of his first wife in 1870 and his marriage to Susannah Grace Sanger in 1871, Müller and Susannah began a 17-year period of missionary travel:
From
To
Itinerary
26 March 1875
6 July 1875
England
15 August 1875
5 July 1876
England, Scotland and Ireland
16 August 1876
25 June 1877
Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands
18 August 1877
8 July 1878
Canada and the United States (including a visit to the White House)
5 September 1878
18 June 1879
Switzerland, France, Spain and Italy
27 August 1879
17 June 1880
United States and Canada
15 September 1880
31 May 1881
Canada and the United States
23 August 1881
30 May 1882
Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Turkey and Greece
8 August 1882
1 June 1883
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia and Poland
26 September 1883
5 June 1884
India
18 August 1884
2 October 1884
England and South Wales
16 May 1885
1 July 1885
England
1 September 1885
3 October 1885
England and Scotland
4 November 1885
13 June 1887
The United States, Australia, China, Japan, the Straits of Malacca, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, France
10 August 1887
11 March 1890
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Ceylon and India
8 August 1890
May 1892
Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy
Müller always expected to pay for their fares and accommodation from the unsolicited gifts given for his own use. However, if someone offered to pay his hotel bill en route, Müller recorded this amount in his accounts.[16]
He travelled more than 200,000 miles, an incredible achievement for pre-aviation times. His language abilities allowed him to preach in English, French, and German, and his sermons were translated into the host languages when he was unable to use the three languages which he spoke.[17] In 1892, he returned to England, where he died on 10 March 1898 in New Orphan House No 3.
Theology[edit]

George Müller’s tombstone
The theology that guided George Müller’s work is not widely known, but was shaped by an experience in his middle twenties when he “came to prize the Bible alone as [his] standard of judgement”.
He records in his Narratives
“[…] That the word of God alone is our standard of judgment in spiritual things; that it can be explained only by the Holy Spirit; and that in our day, as well as in former times, he is the teacher of his people. The office of the Holy Spirit I had not experimentally understood before that time. Indeed, of the office of each of the blessed persons, in what is commonly called the Trinity, I had no experimental apprehension. I had not before seen from the Scriptures that the Father chose us before the foundation of the world; that in him that wonderful plan of our redemption originated, and that he also appointed all the means by which it was to be brought about. Further, that the Son, to save us, had fulfilled the law, to satisfy its demands, and with it also the holiness of God; that he had borne the punishment due to our sins, and had thus satisfied the justice of God. And, further, that the Holy Spirit alone can teach us about our state by nature, show us the need of a Saviour, enable us to believe in Christ, explain to us the Scriptures, help us in preaching, etc. It was my beginning to understand this latter point in particular which had a great effect on me; for the Lord enabled me to put it to the test of experience, by laying aside commentaries, and almost every other book, and simply reading the word of God and studying it. The result of this was, that the first evening that I shut myself into my room, to give myself to prayer and meditation over the Scriptures, I learned more in a few hours than I had done during a period of several months previously. But the particular difference was, that I received real strength for my soul in doing so. I now began to try by the test of the Scriptures the things which I had learned and seen, and found that only those principles which stood the test were really of value.” [18]
Müller also wrote of how he came to believe in the doctrines of election, particular redemption, and final persevering grace while staying in Teignmouth, Devon in 1829.[19] George Müller was a founding member of the Plymouth Brethren movement. Doctrinal differences arose in the 1840s and Müller was determined to determine the truth by the “infallible standard of the Holy Spirit”.[20] At the time, he and Craik were pastors of the Bethesda and Gideon fellowships in Bristol. Membership at Gideon was open to all believers, while only believers who had been baptised could claim full membership of Bethesda, although all believers were welcome at Communion. Müller consulted Robert C Chapman on the issue of accepting unbaptised believers, and Chapman stated that distinction should be made between unbaptised believers who “walked disorderly” and those who lived according to the Bible.[21] Müller and Craik independently contemplated the issue and decided that unbaptised believers, who otherwise lived according to Scriptural principles, should not be denied membership.
Dissension arose at Gideon regarding the presence of unbelievers at communion and the view held by some that pews were private property. Eventually, Müller and Craik withdrew from this fellowship on 19 April 1840,[22] concentrating thereafter on the Bethesda Chapel.[23]
John Nelson Darby and Benjamin Wills Newton became opposed concerning certain matters of doctrine and a discussion was held in Plymouth on 5 December 1845. A document entitled The Principles of Open Brethren stated: “Certain tracts issued by Mr. Newton were judged to contain error regarding the nature of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the question arose whether it was sufficient to exclude from fellowship those who held the erroneous teaching, or whether all who belonged to a gathering where the error was tolerated were to be put outside the pale, even if they themselves had not embraced it. One party, led by Mr Darby, took the latter view. Others, in particular the Bethesda Church, in which Messrs Müller and Craik ministered, refused to admit any who were convicted of holding the evil doctrine themselves, but did not exclude those who came from Mr Newton’s meeting. The exclusive party thereupon declined to have any further fellowship with members of the Bethesda Church or others like-minded. The latter soon came to receive the title of ‘Open Brethren’.”[24] The more exclusive side of the brethren movement became known as the Exclusive Brethren and was led by Darby.[25] Darby called on Müller in July 1849 to discuss the split, but Müller had many prior engagements and could only receive Darby for 10 minutes. It was impossible to fully discuss the problem in such a short time, and the two men never met again.[26]
Though the pre-tribulational rapture doctrine gained momentum as a result of the literature of the Brethren movement, Müller’s church was wary of such teachings. George Müller held to a Post Tribulation Rapture doctrine along with others such as Benjamin Wills Newton and Samuel Prideaux Tregelles,[27] and said that “scripture declares plainly that the Lord Jesus will not come until the Apostasy shall have taken place, and the man of sin shall have been revealed…”[28]
Müller wrote frequently about the stewardship of money and the non-reliance on earthly riches, and how God would bless the man who kept to these principles, and felt that laying his own experiences bare would prove the truth of his claims. His personal income, from unsolicited gifts (he refused any kind of salary) rose from £151 in 1831 to more than £2,000 in 1870. However, he retained only around £300 a year for himself and his family, the rest he gave away.[29]
William Henry Harding said, ‘The world, dull of understanding, has even yet not really grasped the mighty principle upon which he [Müller] acted, but is inclined to think of him merely as a nice old gentleman who loved children, a sort of glorified guardian of the poor, who with the passing of the years may safely be spoken of, in the language of newspaper headlines, as a “prophet of philanthropy.” To describe him thus, however, is to degrade his memory, is to miss the high spiritual aim and the wonderful spiritual lesson of his life. It is because the carnal mind is incapable of apprehending spiritual truth that the world regards the orphan Houses only with the languid interest of mere humanitarianism, and remains oblivious of their extraordinary witness to the faithfulness of God.'[30]
Personal life[edit]
His name is frequently spelt as “Mueller”, particularly in the United States. Whilst “Mueller” is a possible substitute spelling for “Müller” in German, George Müller never changed his name from the original spelling and always took care to place the two dots over the letter “u” to form the umlaut. When asked by his nephew, Edward Groves, what difference this made to the pronunciation, Müller pronounced his name as though it was spelt “Meller”.[31]
Youth[edit]
Müller was born in Kroppenstädt (now Kroppenstedt), a village near Halberstadt in the Kingdom of Prussia.[32] In 1810, the Müller family moved to nearby Heimersleben, where Müller’s father was appointed a collector of taxes.[33] He had an older brother, Friedrich Johann Wilhelm (1803 – 7 Oct 1838) and, after his widowed father remarried, a half-brother, Franz (b 1822).
His early life was not marked by righteousness – on the contrary, he was a thief, a liar and a gambler. By the age of 10, Müller was stealing government money from his father.[33] While his mother was dying, he, at fourteen years of age, was playing cards with friends and drinking.[34][35] While in seminary at the University of Halle in Germany, Müller described his status as one of
wicked behavior and unrepentant spirit … Despite my sinful lifestyle and cold heart, God had mercy on me. I was as careless as ever. I had no Bible and had not read any Scripture for years. I seldom went to church; and, out of custom only, I took the Lord’s Supper twice a year. I never heard the gospel preached. Nobody told me that Jesus meant for Christians, by the help of God, to live according to the Holy Scriptures. …[36]
Then Müller attended a prayer meeting in a private home in 1825 which so moved him that a swift transformation began in his behavior. “I have no doubt … that He began a work of grace in me. Even though I scarcely had any knowledge of who God truly was, that evening was the turning point in my life.”[37]
Müller’s father hoped to provide him with a religious education that would allow him to take a lucrative position as a clergyman in the state church. He studied divinity at Halle and there met a fellow student, Beta, who invited him to the Christian prayer meeting which changed Müller’s perspective. He was welcomed and began regularly reading the Bible and discussing Christianity with the others in attendance. After seeing a man on his knees praying to God, he was convinced of his need for salvation. He went to his bed, knelt and prayed, and asked God to help him in his life and to bless him wherever he went and to forgive him of his sins. He immediately stopped drinking, stealing and lying, and developed hope of becoming a missionary, rather than the comfortable clergyman that his father had envisioned for him. He began preaching regularly in nearby churches.[38]
A life of prayer[edit]
Müller prayed about everything and expected each prayer to be answered. One example was when one of the orphan house’s boiler stopped working; Müller needed to have it fixed. This was a problem, because the boiler was bricked up and the weather was worsening with each day. So he prayed for two things; firstly that the workers he had hired would have a mind to work throughout the night, and secondly that the weather would let up. On the Tuesday before the work was due to commence, a bitter north wind still blew but in the morning, before the workmen arrived, a southerly wind began to blow and it was so mild that no fires were needed to heat the buildings. That evening, the foreman of the contracted company attended the site to see how he might speed things along, and instructed the men to report back first thing in the morning to make an early resumption of work. The team leader stated that they would prefer to work through the night. The job was done in thirty hours.[39]
In 1862, it was discovered that one of the drains was blocked. Being some 11 feet underground, workmen were unable to find the blockage despite several attempts. Müller prayed about the situation and the workmen at once found the site of the problem.[40][41]
Strong gales in Bristol on Saturday 14 January 1865 caused considerable damage in the area and over twenty holes were opened in the roofs. About twenty windows were also broken and two frames damaged by falling slates. The glazier and slater normally employed had already committed their staff to other work so nothing could be done until the Monday. Had the winds continued, with heavy rain, the damage to the orphanage would have been much greater. After much prayer, the wind stopped in the afternoon and no rain fell until Wednesday, by which time most of the damage had been repaired.[42]
Once, while crossing the Atlantic on the SS Sardinian in August 1877, his ship ran into thick fog. He explained to the captain that he needed to be in Quebec by the following afternoon, but Captain Joseph E. Dutton (later known as “Holy Joe”) said that he was slowing the ship down for safety and Müller’s appointment would have to be missed. Müller asked to use the chartroom to pray for the lifting of the fog. The captain followed him down, claiming it would be a waste of time. After Müller prayed a very simple prayer, the captain started to pray, but Müller stopped him; partly because of the captain’s unbelief, but mainly because he believed the prayer had already been answered. Müller said, “Captain, I have known my Lord for more than fifty years and there is not one instance that I have failed to have an audience with the King. Get up, Captain, for you will find that the fog has gone.” When the two men went back to the bridge, they found the fog had lifted, and Müller was able to keep his appointment. The captain became a Christian shortly afterwards.[43]
Müller’s faith in God strengthened day by day and he spent hours in daily prayer and Bible reading. Indeed, it was his practice, in later years, to read through the entire Bible four times a year.[44]
The George Müller Charitable Trust[edit]
After his life, his work was continued by The George Müller Foundation, which was renamed The George Müller Charitable Trust on 1 March 2009. The Trust maintains the key principle of seeking money through prayer alone – it actively shuns fund-raising activities. The charity works together with local churches in the Bristol area to enable them to reach out and care for their communities, especially children, young people and families with physical, emotional, social or spiritual needs; and encourages giving to support mission, social care, relief and development work across the world.[45] From 1986 to September 2010, it also provided residential care for the elderly in Tilsley House, Weston-super-Mare. The Trust continued to maintain a sheltered accommodation unit for the elderly in Tranquil House, next-door to Tilsley House, until it was closed in 2012.
A small museum maintained by the Trust at its headquarters in Cotham Park, Bristol, is open by appointment only. Records of all children who passed through the orphanage are held and may be inspected by relatives for a modest fee.

艾伟德(Gladys Aylward)和英格丽·褒曼的好莱坞电影六福客栈

摘自维基百科

《六福客栈》——一部英格丽·褒曼主演的好莱坞电影,故事发生地在山西省晋城市阳城县。

这部电影由二十世纪福克斯公司拍摄,马克·罗布森导演,1958年在美国上映。1959年获第31届奥斯卡金像奖最佳导演提名。同年,获第16届美国电影金球奖最佳男女主角等多项提名,最终赢得“促进国际间了解影片”奖。

艾伟德(Gladys Aylward,1902-1970)是一位原籍英国的独立女传教士,被称为“小妇人”,她在中国传教的经历在西方广为人知。1958年,美国好莱坞以格拉蒂丝·艾伟德的故事为原型,挑选当时的国际影星英格丽·褒曼拍摄了电影《六福客栈》。

六福客栈

1902年2月24日,艾伟德生于英国伦敦以北米德尔塞克斯郡埃德蒙顿的一个工人阶级家庭。早年未受太多教育,做过侍女,后决心去中国传教,但是没有通过内地会的考试。1930年10月18日,她自英国只身出发,花费了所有的积蓄,乘船和火车,穿越苏联、途中几乎被拘留,后又取道日本,最终到达中国天津、北京,然后又长途跋涉到达山西阳城县,接替年老的卫理会传教士珍妮·劳生(Jeannie Lawson)。在阳城,艾伟德创立了八福客栈。她曾接受当地道尹的请求,帮助妇女放脚,还曾帮助平息当地监狱的骚乱,她还收养了很多孤儿。1936年艾伟德加入中国籍。抗日战争爆发后,该地区被日军侵占,宣教团体保持中立,艾伟德厌恶日军暴行,帮助救治中国难民和伤员,并将日军行踪通知中国方面。1940年艾伟德率领94名儿童经过数十天艰苦的步行,安全转移到西安。后在陕西、甘肃、四川等地传教。

260px-Gladys_Aylward
1949年回到英国家乡,英国广播公司的Alan Burgess将她的经历写成《小妇人》(The Small Woman)一书。1958年她决定重新回到中国大陆,但被拒绝入境,于是前往台湾,于北投(后迁木栅)创立了艾伟德儿童之家[8](后改为伯大尼儿少家园)。1970年1月3日,因流感并发肺炎,在台湾病逝,后葬于关渡基督学院[8]。 英国埃德蒙顿的一间中学以她的名字命名(Gladys Aylward School)。

影视[编辑]
1958年,故事片《六福客栈》(The Inn of the Sixth Happiness,1958),英格丽·褒曼饰演女主角。
2008年,纪录片《Gladys Aylward, the Small Woman with a Great God (2008)》
2008年,儿童DVD《The Gladys Aylward Story (2008)》for children ages 8-12

外部链接[编辑]
小妇人:艾伟德
张继新:《八福客栈–艾伟德》 甘肃人民美术出版社 ISBN 7-80588-582-6
谭曙方:《寻找六福客栈》

备注[编辑]
^ 艾伟德女士于1936年申请中华民国国籍,但因战乱导致相关文件遗失。根据中华民国行政院相关资料显示,艾伟德女士的实际入籍时间是1941年。
出典[编辑]
^
跳转至:
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 于中旻. 小妇人:艾伟德. 翼报. [2018-12-26].
^
跳转至:
2.0 2.1 杨丽娟. 抗战期间一个英国小妇人保护中国孤儿的故事. 中国共产党新闻网. 北京日报. [2018-12-26].
^
跳转至:
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 珍妮·劳生. 为中国献出生命的英国“小妇人”艾韦德. 良友电台. [2018-12-26].
^ 陈中陵. 走访艾伟德宣教士墓园. 随意窝. 台湾基督教史学会. [2018-12-26].
^ 在好莱坞电影中被为改为《六福客栈》(The Inn of the Sixth Happiness)。
^ 八福即:博爱、美德、谦逊、忍耐、忠诚、诚实、美好、奉献。(云淡风清:《有信仰的人》)
^ 阳城政协:《建议将阳城“八福客栈”列为省级以上重点保护文物 互联网档案馆的存档,存档日期2016-03-04.》
^
跳转至:
8.0 8.1 陈中陵. 走访艾伟德宣教士墓园. 2009-04-09 [2015-03-06].
^ http://www.cdn.org.tw/News.aspx?cate=13&key=6420

一生献给台湾的加拿大医生和教育家马偕博士

每个台湾人都知道加拿大马偕医生,因为他一生用耶稣基督的爱创建了台湾的这些著名机构。

乔治·莱斯里·马偕(英语:George Leslie MacKay,1844年3月21日-1901年6月2日),生于加拿大安大略省,长老教会牧师,虽然不是医师但学过解剖学与生理学课程[1]。于19世纪末期至台湾传教与行医,与马雅各齐名。汉名叫偕叡理,在台湾,一般人皆称为“马偕博士”或“偕牧师”。“宁愿烧尽,不愿朽坏”(Rather burn out, than rust out)赞赏马偕的一生[2],他的座右铭为“拢是为基督”(All for Christ)。

早年[编辑]

马偕的家族原是英国苏格兰高地(Scottish Highlands)巽德兰(Sutherland)的佃农,因英国工业革命引发的圈地运动,产生苏格兰高地清洗运动,马偕的家族人士陆续逃到加拿大,马偕的父母于1830年移居加拿大,他的父母都是敬虔的基督徒

1844年3月21日,马偕(Rev. George Leslie MacKay. D.D.)生于加拿大安大略省牛津郡(Oxford)佐拉村(Zorra),他有五个哥哥七个姐姐,家中排行老幺。马偕的父亲乔治(George MacKay,1799-1884)曾是佐拉村“老木造教堂”(Old log Church)长老教会的长老,母亲是Helen(1801-1885)。“老木造教堂”是由苏格兰高地Sutherland, Ross, Inverness等州(Shire)的移民于1832年建造的,首任牧师是来自苏格兰的马坚志(Donald Mckenzie,1798-1884)。其神学是“严格又古老的加尔文主义”(Stern old Calvinism):敬畏上帝,教导子女读圣经、信奉主,听从自己良心的声音,遵守安息日且喜爱之,也敬爱传道者。

马偕出生那一年(1844年),是加拿大长老教会大分裂之年,马坚志成为佐拉的教育长(Superintendent of Education),他鼓励村民去考教师执照,在乡村任教,其薪津由政府支出。马坚志总共引导38名青年走上传教之路,其中包括赴台湾的马偕[4]

1850年,马偕7岁时进入胡士托小学,1855年(11岁)小学毕业,进入多伦多师范学校,1858年(14岁)师范学校毕业。1859年(15岁)起,担任Maplewood小学及Maitland小学教员达五、六年。1866年9月,马偕21岁进入加拿大多伦多大学诺士神学院深造。1867年9月,转入美国普林斯顿神学院,1870年4月26日普林斯顿神学院毕业,返回加拿大。

1870年8月,马偕受派于多伦多New Market教会牧会,9月19日向加拿大长老会海外宣道会提出申请,自愿为海外宣教师,当时虽然加拿大长老会已经成立海外宣道会数年,但一切工作都仍停滞于筹备阶段,未曾处理过像马偕这样的申请,有许多人怀疑他的动机,说他是一位急躁的青年,对他的态度冷淡,没有即刻批准。马偕在等待中,11月前往英国爱丁堡大学神学院深造,受教于大布道家都福博士等人门下。

1871年4月,马偕接到了加拿大长老教会海外宣道会主席(MacLaren)的信,谓其申请已获批准,将他的申请呈报总会,6月中旬,加拿大长老教会总会于魁北克召开,议决派遣他至中国宣教,于是他束装返回加拿大。1871年9月19日,加拿大长老教会总会委托多伦多中会于多伦多教会封立马偕为牧师。马偕对中国相当陌生,他搜罗购买书店陈列的中国相关书籍,而相当受到注目的自然学者华勒士马来群岛的回忆录和相关丛书也是他极有兴趣的主题 -“大陆边缘的岛屿动植物,是否因地理的阻隔而发展出不同的物种?”这个问题一直在他的心中。

马偕来台初期(1871年12月30日-1880年1月1日)[编辑]

前往台湾淡水[编辑]

1871年10月19日,马偕辞别了故乡亲友,他从胡士托搭火车前往美国旧金山,11月1日,由旧金山搭乘“S‧S美利坚号”横越太平洋,经日本前往香港。在船上认识好几位于中国服事的宣教师,其中一位美国长老教会派驻上海美华书店的宣教师大卫送马偕一个汉字部首表。

1871年12月5日,到达香港。隔日,马偕在两位英国长老教会的代表陪同下,搭乘汽船溯河进入广东英国长老教会地点,会议成员建议马偕前往汕头,但汕头当时已经有平信徒史密斯先生(Mr. Smith)负责布道。经过一段时间的考察,马偕决定到淡水宣教。

1871年12月30日,马偕抵达台湾打狗(高雄),当时打狗旗后医馆由万巴德医生(Dr. Patrick Manson)的弟弟万大卫医生(Dr. David Manson)接管。当时台南二老口街(现今启聪学校博爱堂附近)的医馆由德马太医生(Dr. Matthew Dickson)负责,马雅各医生已于1871年11月离开台湾返回英国。马偕日记述:“…门逊医生(Dr. Manson)接我上岸,他待人慷慨又亲切”,指的就是万大卫医生。

1872年1月1日,马偕由打狗(高雄)至阿里港(屏东县里港乡)拜会李庥牧师(Rev. Hugh Ritchie,1840-1879),担任宾客住了2个月,3月7日李庥牧师陪同马偕由打狗搭乘“海龙号”轮船,前往台湾北部,途经台南府时,德马太医生(Dr. Matthew Dickson)加入他们的行列。

1872年3月9日下午3时,马偕一行3人在沪尾(淡水)登岸。

早期传教[编辑]

3月11日,李庥牧师及德马太医生欲由陆路步行南下,到南部教区最北的布道站—台中大社视察,(当时台湾以大甲溪为界,分南北教区),马偕欣然陪同前往。4月2日在大社礼拜堂前,马偕与李庥牧师及德马太医生辞别,他们继续南下,马偕以一个多月的时间旅行踏查北部教区,4月6日下午4点回到沪尾(淡水)。

4月10日(4天之后),马偕租了一间房子开始布道,建立北部第一间教会,所以,教会史记载马偕于1872年4月10日开设北台湾第一所教会 – 淡水教会。6月1日,马偕在其所租之寓所开始诊疗。

4月14日礼拜天,马偕把过去在李庥牧师处学来的台语整理运用,第一次用台语讲道,为了要达成宣教的任务,马偕知道非有流利的本地语言不可,于是他从仆人及牧牛孩童那里学到通俗的台语,终于能够流利操用。4月19日,马偕的第一个门徒严清华出现了,他原是一个知识青年,他向马偕提出了一些问题,马偕送他一本《圣诗》,此后,严清华(阿华)经常来听福音,而且还带朋友一起来。4月25日一大早,“阿华”面带笑容,神采奕奕到马偕家,以学生身份晋见马偕,并为马偕代劳打扫房子。因此,北部基督会把4月25日这一天当作是马偕在台湾北部正式实施教育,特别是神学教育的头一天。

1873年1月9日,马偕亲自主持5名信徒的洗礼—严清华(22岁)、吴宽裕(31岁)、王长水(24岁)、林孽(26岁)、林杯(42岁),1月16日举行圣餐,皆为北部教会第一次的记录。第一个信徒严清华原是一个知识青年,日后成为第一个传道师,也是北部教会第一个本地籍牧师。

淡水教会开设之后,1873年3月月2日,五股坑教会落成,为北台湾第一间礼拜堂。马偕紧接着在新港杜(平埔族)、和尚洲(今芦洲)等地传福音设立教会。

1875年1月29日,加拿大长老会派第一批生力军华雅各医生(Rev. J.B. Fraser, M.D.)夫妇抵达台湾,他是内科医生,由于他们的到来,加拿大长老会拨款盖了两栋舒适、宽敞的宣教师宿舍给他们住。可惜,华雅各夫人于1877年10月4日病逝,不久,华雅各医生带着两个女儿回国。

1878年夏天,加拿大长老会又派了闰虔益牧师(Rev. Kenneth F. Junor)夫妇前来支援马偕。当马偕第一次返回加拿大休假(1880年)时,台湾的宣教工作就落在闰牧师和“阿华”的身上了。

到了1878年,加拿大长老教会海外宣道委员会(FMC)已经注意到了马偕在台湾有可观的宣教成果,因此写信要求他写一篇报告,说明究竟是用什么好方法。马偕整理出来如下4点:(1)旅行和配药:虽然医院对改变当地人有关医疗或保健上的偏见做了许多贡献,但我们认为更多的成果是当我们在乡下一村又一村的旅行当中,挨家挨户做的医疗工作所达成的成绩。(2)旅行和传道:马偕通常访问一个地方许多次,提供一些药品之后,才开始向当地人传福音,经常是一街到一街、一户到一户、而且是一人到一人地解释拯救好消息。(3)旅行和训练年轻人:不论马偕走到哪里,总有一些年轻人跟随着,在旅途中跋涉或在海边倘佯或在教室里静坐的时候,马偕总利用机会教学生以日常的功课。(4)旅行并在已经建立起来的教堂派已受过训的帮手去负责,任何地方如果需要进一步的教导,会派一个本地人帮手去接续那个已经有开端的工作[5]。根据马偕这份报告所提出的4个方法,有一个共同的关键字,那就是“旅行”。前7年里,马偕住在淡水的时间只有175天。

结婚[编辑]

1878年5月27日,为了使妇女也能受到照顾,马偕决定娶一台湾女子为妻,马偕娶五股坑(今新北市五股区)台湾女子张聪明(原名:阿葱)为妻,1879年5月24日,女儿偕玛连(Mary Ellen Mackay)出生于大龙峒[6]。 (马偕娶张聪明是因为相爱)

第一次返回加拿大(1880年1月1日-1881年12月底)[编辑]

前往加拿大[编辑]

1880年1月1日,马偕与夫人、长女返回加拿大述职。马偕一家人从经过厦门泉州、汕头、香港、新加坡槟城加尔各答孟买,在各地讲道、参观教堂、寺庙博物馆等,并拜访各地教会及医师友人;4月7日抵达亚丁;8日进入红海航行,4月13日到过苏伊士运河,4月14日到达开罗,参观金字塔人面狮身像等;4月21日到5月3日间在约旦耶路撒冷,参观圣墓礼拜堂哭墙死海伯大尼、骑驴去伯利恒;9日从亚历山大港进入地中海,15日至18日间在意大利那不勒斯,参观庞贝城遗迹、维苏威火山;18日搭火车去罗马,参观竞技场圣彼得大教堂万神殿;20日参观梵谛冈宫;23日搭火车穿过阿尔卑斯山;24日到达巴黎;26日搭火车去加莱多佛,横越多佛海峡;27日搭火车去伦敦,待到31日,除了马偕的演讲、聆听布道、拜访友人等行程之外,也参观了圣保罗大教堂西敏寺大修道院;6月4日到达爱丁堡,马偕在此作了许多次演讲,参观爱丁堡城堡,还看高地军团和军事法庭的审判;6月12日继续航行,因在高纬度航行,6月20日还在海上看见巨大的冰山。

1880年6月24日早上,马偕一家人终于抵达加拿大魁北克,25日平安到达安大略省。

二女儿出生[编辑]

1880年9月4日,二女儿偕以利(Bella Catherine Mackay)出生于加拿大。

获得荣誉神学博士学位[编辑]

加拿大述职这一年多时间,马偕在加拿大及美国各地讲道、演讲、参加聚会,并得到许多募款。马偕夫人也一同前往各地教会报告,并对妇女们演讲,由于她是第一位来访的台湾女性,引起许多的好奇与关心。1880年,马偕获得加拿大皇后学院(今皇后大学)赠与荣誉神学博士学位(Honorary Doctor of Divinity)。

演讲与募款[编辑]

当时,马偕牛津郡的乡亲发起在淡水建立神学院的募捐运动,在1881年他们返台前,亲友们在胡士托最大的教堂“中央卫理教会”举行了一场欢送会,马偕夫人于会中被邀请上台致词,并发表她在加拿大的种种经验与感想。最后由报社代表,将六千多美元的募捐成果赠送给马偕。1881年10月21日,马偕离别加拿大返台,12月29日安抵淡水,展开他在台湾第二阶段的宣教工作。

马偕来台中期(1881年12月底-1893年9月6日)[编辑]

独子偕叡廉诞生[编辑]

1882年1月22日,独子偕叡廉(Dr.George William Mackay)出生于淡水。

牛津学堂[编辑]

1882年7月26日,“Oxford College”(牛津学堂)落成,它的正式汉文名称是“理学堂大书院”。9月15日(礼拜五)首次开学,除了马偕外,还有陈荣辉(火)、严清华两人向学生们讲课,学生共18名。其中,郭希信、陈清和两人后来成了牧师。

不久(1882年11月9日),闰牧师因健康关系而携眷回国。1883年3月,加拿大长老会又派了黎约翰牧师(Rev. John Jamieson)夫妇前来补缺。黎约翰牧师夫妇和马偕共同经历了清法战争法国军舰封锁且炮击台湾的那段烽火岁月(1884年8月-1885年6月)。黎约翰牧师在台期间曾经与马偕发生摩擦,而闹得满城风雨,但是终归于好。黎牧师于1891年4月23日病逝于淡水,其夫人不久后也返国定居。黎牧师去世后次年,1892年10月22日,加拿大长老会派出第4对生力军吴威廉牧师(Rev. William Gauld)夫妇抵达淡水来协助马偕。

宜兰、花莲宣教[编辑]

1883年,马偕前往宜兰花莲原住民的居住地传教,1887年成立苏澳教会。

清法越南战争[编辑]

1883年到1885年间发生清法战争(又称清法越南战争),1884年8月,法国远东舰队击败清国福建水师,取得台湾海峡制海权,10月初,法舰转而进攻台湾;刘铭传放弃基隆、退守台北,10月8日法军在沪尾(淡水)抢滩登陆时被清军及台湾乡勇击退,转而从10月23日起封锁台湾各港口,直到1885年4月15日解除封锁。清法战争期间,教会遭到暴徒破坏,7座教会被毁,数十名教徒遇难殉道,马偕于1885年5月29日入法军占领区巡视,途中晋见刘铭传。

新店长老教会耶稣圣教石碑复制品

1885年9月28日刘铭传以墨西哥银佛银)一万两赔偿,重建7座赔偿教堂。教堂由马偕设计,墙体多用土埆及砖,屋顶用西式桁架,铺台湾瓦。屋脊两端皆突出小塔。其中有的在正面中央置高耸的五级尖塔,每级装饰图案不同,皆有其象征意义,例如到东方宣教、东西两半球、焚而不毁以及燃烧的蜡烛等。7座赔偿教堂包括鸡笼(今基隆)、和尚洲(今台北芦洲,1883年建)、八里坌(今台北八里,1884年建)、锡口(今台北松山)、艋舺(今台北万华,1889年建)、大龙峒(今台北大稻埕,1885年建)与新店(1884年建)。

第二次返回加拿大(1893年9月6日-1895年11月19日)[编辑]

1893年8月18日,马偕率全家及门徒柯玖(柯维思)第二度返回加拿大述职,欢送他们的是热烈的游行队伍,乐队演奏、鸣枪、燃放鞭炮和烟火。8月20日抵达香港停留数日,9月6日登上英国籍汽船“印度女皇号”出发,展开东越太平洋的航程,途经上海长崎横滨等港。船上的乘客有日本人、法国人、美国人,在船上由船长主持做礼拜,船长并安排马偕一家人参观船只引擎,是一趟愉快的航行。不过,9月26日抵达维多利亚港英语Victoria Harbour (British Columbia)时,马偕一家却受到海关官员刁难,禁止登岸,因官员坚持马偕夫人的华人身份,必须缴付“人头税”,所幸得到加拿大太平洋铁路公司Canadian Pacific Railway Limited)人员的帮助,宣告她是英国人,拥有完全的权利免费上岸。

1893年10月9日回到加拿大的家之后,马偕全家在加拿大展开近两年的生活。马偕仍然忙碌于四处讲道,尤其他在1894年6月13日被推选为总会议长。马偕此行许多时间忙于写作,即于1895年9月完成并付印的著作From Far Formosa[7](《台湾遥寄》,2007年中文版书名改为《福尔摩沙纪事:马偕台湾回忆录》[8]),这是他在台湾18年间的经历见闻和研究。此外,马偕全家也有许多拜访亲友、参加聚会、一起采收作物、一同出游、钓鱼的愉快活动。1895年9月27日,马偕全家离开胡士托返回台湾。

日治时期马偕在台湾(1895年11月19日-1901年6月2日)[编辑]

1895年11月19日抵达淡水港,面对的是统治者已改变的日本占据时代。

由于甲午战争后,马关条约将台湾与澎湖割给日本,1895年5月29日,日军登陆澳底,台湾各地纷纷起义抗日,基督徒受日军怀疑为抗日份子,民众又误认基督徒与日本串通[来源请求],在两面夹攻下,各地基督徒再度遭受迫害和损失。马偕见此情景,谒见乃木总督,告诉他台湾教会受害情形。

1899年3月9日,马偕的两位女儿同日出嫁,大女儿偕玛连嫁给陈清义牧师,二女儿偕以利嫁给柯维思(原名柯玖)长老,都成为“台湾媳妇”。

逝世[编辑]

1900年5月1日,噶玛兰地区从事最后一次巡视宜兰的教会,回到淡水,在长期呼喊叫人悔改信主后,他的声音已经沙哑,在中国河南省宣教的麦克·克鲁尔(McClure)医师,奉加拿大母会之命抵台为马偕诊病,诊断为喉癌。连牛津学堂开学,他都无法教课,后来喉咙溃烂,吞下去的食物都从喉咙的洞流出来,他自知上帝召唤的时刻到了,就趁家人和轮流看护的学生不注意,突然跑到学堂大声敲钟,把学生召集起来,吃力的上完最后一堂课。

1901年6月2日下午4时,马偕博士经过年余喉癌纠缠后,在淡水寓所辞世,享年57岁,骨灰葬于今日淡江中学内。

马偕墓,位于淡江中学内。

马偕逝世后,他的独子偕叡廉到加拿大念大学,再到美国麻省克拉克大学取得教育学硕士,1911年与萝丝仁利小姐(Jean Ross)结婚,婚后回台湾承接马偕衣钵,继续投入宣教与教育工作,并1914年创办了淡江中学,在日据时期成为台湾子弟得以受教育之教会。偕叡廉有二儿三女,二个儿子即偕威理与偕约翰都在淡水长大。目前马偕的后代分别居住在加拿大及台湾。

贡献[编辑]

医疗方面[编辑]

马偕在自宅展开免费医疗的工作,教导民众公共卫生知识,为人拔除蛀牙,赠送疟疾特效药,治疗脚脓疮(俗称臭脚粘),并由国外输入蔬菜种子如萝卜甘蓝菜蕃茄敏豆花椰菜胡萝卜等,介绍给农民种植。马偕大量传输西洋科学知识到台湾,由立体方式传播福音,从此归信的人与日俱增。

马偕于第一次回加拿大期间,得到加拿大乡亲的资助下,又获得一位同姓的马偕夫人捐赠2500美元的帮助,于是1880年马偕在沪尾(今日新北市淡水区)创建台湾北部第一所西医医院-偕医馆马偕纪念医院的前身),除了可以医治民众,也有助于传教。|马偕纪念医院台北院区
座落于中山北路双连站旁。]]

马偕常常和助手旅行布道,深入平埔族熟蕃南势蕃生蕃区住的村落,随时在路边帮人拔牙,曾在日记上记载他昨天拔了多少牙,今天又拔了多少牙,终其一生,马偕总共为台湾人拔了超过两万一千颗牙。

中法战争时,军进犯北台湾,惊慌的民众仇视一切外国人基督教,于是聚众拆毁教会、挖掉基石,然而法军猛烈轰炸淡水的结果,使偕医馆内外都挤满受伤的士兵,马偕因尽心尽力的照顾他们,还受到清廷的褒奖。

教育方面[编辑]

1882年7月26日,马偕创建牛津学堂(Oxford College,汉名为“理学堂大书院”,今真理大学)。二年后的1884年又在牛津学堂东侧建立台湾第一所淡水女学堂。第一届即招收34名学生,不但学费全免,还补助交通费、提供吃住与衣着。但当时的汉人受到传统礼教的约束,世家门阀不希望家中女子抛头露面;穷苦人家则是重视男孩的教育,不以女孩受教育为要务。结果最捧场的却是马偕曾去传教的宜兰平埔族噶玛兰族

牛津学堂旧址,现座落于真理大学淡水校区。

探索台湾自然及民俗文化[编辑]

马偕搜藏文物的智慧与鉴别文物的能力,令人刮目相看。他在1893年第二次返回加拿大时,曾购入600件台湾民俗文物,其中三分之二为汉人所有,三分之一为原住民所有;原住民文物中,又以凯达格兰族占大多数,这些文物现在存放在加拿大多伦多安大略博物馆地下室[9]

其他相关[编辑]

马偕诗[编辑]

  • 名:最后的住家
  • 词:马偕
  • 文:台语
  • 谱:圣诗430首

我全心所疼惜的台湾啊! 我的青春拢总献给你。我全心所疼惜的台湾啊!

我一生的欢喜拢在此。 我在云雾中看见山岭,从云中隙孔观望全地,波澜大海遥远的对岸,我意爱在此眺望无息。

我心未可割离的台湾啊! 我的人生拢总献给你。我心未可割离的台湾啊! 我一生的快乐拢在此。

盼望我人生的续尾站,在大涌拍岸的响声中,在竹林摇动的荫影里,找到一生最后的住家。

马偕传记作品[编辑]

  • 《From Far Formosa》

1895年,马偕利用第二次携眷回加拿大述职期间(1893年8月18日-2017年1月1日),写下他在台湾22年多的宣教回忆录,经其好友麦唐纳(James Alexander MacDonald, 1862/01/22-1923/05/13)编辑成《From Far Formosa》一书,第一版于1985年出版。中文译本有三:(1)1955年林耀南译《台湾遥寄》,(2)1960年周学普译《台湾六记》,(3)2007年林晚生译《福尔摩沙纪事:马偕台湾回忆录》

  • 《马偕日记》

马偕日记写成12本,是从1871年11月1日写起,一直到1901年2月10日他的病情日益严重为止,但不知何故,缺少1883年一整年。马偕去世后,其日记手稿由他的独子偕叡廉保存,偕叡廉在世期间,曾将马偕的日记手稿择要摘译为白话字,分订三册。陈宏文就读台湾神学院期间,撰写“马偕博士的宣教思想及方法”毕业论文,他把马偕的日记摘译再译为中文,交由台湾教会公报社出版(1972年初版,1996年人光版) [10]。马偕日记手稿12本及其儿子偕叡廉白话字摘译本,现典藏于真理大学“马偕纪念资料馆”。

马偕次女偕以利(Bella MacKay, 1880~1970)的日记,记载自1900年4月父亲患感冒起,一直至死、安葬后的1901年6月5日为止,在时间上恰好可以和马偕日记手稿最后的记录接轨。

2012年,《马偕日记》完整中文版首度出版,共三册,七十多万字(台北:玉山社,2012)。该年是马偕抵台140周年,真理大学于6月更举办‘马偕学术研讨会’。

逸事[编辑]

马偕在1883年至宜兰开拓教会,噶玛兰人没有姓氏,马偕建议部落的人另取汉人姓氏,当时头目请汉人老师从百家姓随意取了十几个姓氏再加上马偕的中文姓氏“偕”让族人抽签。[11][12]

文化活动[编辑]

  • 歌剧

2002年,文建会委托台湾作曲家金希文及编剧邱瑗创作以台湾在地故事为背景的歌剧,耗时五年筹画,两厅院于2008年推出以台/英语演唱的三幕歌剧《福尔摩沙信简—黑须马偕》。

  • 纪录片

2003年公视台湾百年人物志

  • 戏剧

2008年公视台湾人民的历史

  • 歌仔戏

2014年国立台湾戏曲学院大涌来拍岸-台湾子婿‧马偕

出版书籍[编辑]

  • 《马偕日记1871-1901(完整版)全三册》,作者: 偕叡理,原文作者: Rev.George Leslie MacKay,译者: 王荣昌、王镜玲、何画瑰、林昌华、陈志荣、刘亚兰,出版社:玉山社,出版日期:2012/03/03,ISBN 9789862940228

George Leslie Mackay or Má-kai; 21 March 1844 – 2 June 1901, aged 57) was the first Presbyterian missionary to northern Taiwan (then Formosa). He served with the Canadian Presbyterian Mission. Mackay is among the best known Westerners to have lived in Taiwan.

Early life[edit]

Mackay was born in Embro, Zorra Township, Oxford County, Canada West (now Ontario), Canada. He received his theological training at Knox College in Toronto, Princeton Seminary in the United States, and New College, Edinburgh in Scotland, all Presbyterian institutions.

Mission to Taiwan[edit]

Original building of the Oxford University College founded by Mackay in Tamsui, Taiwan. Now named Aletheia University, the school administers a museum devoted to Mackay artifacts.

In 1871 Mackay became the first foreign missionary to be commissioned by the Canada Presbyterian Church (predecessor of both the Presbyterian Church in Canada and the United Church of Canada), arriving in Taiwan on New Year’s Eve, 31 December 1871.

After consulting with Dr. James Laidlaw Maxwell Sr., a medical doctor serving as a Presbyterian Church of England missionary to southern Formosa (1865), Mackay arrived at Tamsui, northern Formosa in 1872, which remained his home until his death in 1901. Starting with an itinerant dentistry practice amongst the lowland aborigines,[1] he later established churches, schools and a hospital practicing Western biomedicine. He learned to speak vernacular Taiwanese fluently, and married “Minnie” Tiu (張聰明; Tiuⁿ Chhang-miâ), a Taiwanese woman.

He was described by Rev. William Campbell, a contemporary missionary, as

…a little man, firm and active, of few words, unflinching courage, and one whose sound common sense is equalled only by his earnest devotion to the Master. […] During the first year of his stay at Tamsui, he began an educational and evangelistic training movement among the young men who came about him, and this has been greatly blessed throughout that northern part of the Island.[1]

The churches he planted later became the Northern Synod of the present Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. In 1896, after the 1895 establishment of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan, Mackay met with the Japanese Governor-General of Formosa, Maresuke Nogi. Some families in Taiwan today, particularly of lowland-aboriginal Kavalan ancestry, trace their surname ‘偕’ (‘Kai’ or ‘Kay’) to their family’s conversion to Christianity by Mackay.

In Canada Mackay was honoured during his two furloughs home by the Canadian Church. In 1880, Queen’s College in Kingston, Ontario awarded him an honorary Doctor of Divinity, presented by Principal George Monro Grant and Chancellor Sandford Fleming. Before departing in 1881, he returned to Oxford County, where monies were raised to start Oxford College in Taiwan; a number of young people in the county were inspired to follow Mackay’s example and entered into missionary service with a number of Christian denominations.

In June 1894, at the General Assembly meeting in St. John, New Brunswick, Mackay was elected Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, the highest elected position in the church. He spent the following Moderatoral year travelling across Canada, as well as writing From Far Formosa: the island, its people and missions, a missionary ethnography and memoir of his missionary experiences.

In 1894 he spoke out against the head tax imposed on Chinese immigrants to Canada. As moderator of the Presbyterian church, he broke precedent to speak in favor of a resolution opposing this tax, saying it was unjust and racist.[2]

Legacy[edit]

A sculpture at Aletheia University displays the text of Proverbs 9.10 in Mandarin and Taiwanese.

Mackay’s From Far Formosa is considered an important early missionary ethnography of Taiwan and an important contribution to the anthropological understanding of the culture and customs of the people of Taiwan during that period. Mackay himself was as fascinated by the cultures and habitat he found as he was disapproving of native practices he viewed as idolatry. He spoke approvingly of the destruction of art and other artefacts previously regarded as sacred by his newly Christian converts. Of his rustic apartment in an aboriginal village, Mackay wrote:

To that place the cast-off machinery of idolatry was brought, and more than once I dried my clothes before fires made of idolatrous paper, idols, and ancestral tablets. Three men were employed to carry other paraphernalia of idol-worship to the museum in Tamsui.[3]

Mackay was otherwise an enthusiastic collector of cultural artefacts and specimens of local flora and fauna. Many items collected by him are today preserved at the ethnology department of the Royal Ontario Museum (Ontario, Canada) and the Aletheia University Museum (Tamsui, Taiwan).

Mackay monument in Taiwan at Tamsui.

Mackay monument in Canada at Woodstock, Ontario.

Although Mackay had suffered from meningitis and malaria, he would die of throat cancer on 2 June 1901 in Tamsui. He was interred near Oxford College (牛津學堂; now Aletheia University) in Tamsui, Taiwan; more specifically, his grave is in a small cemetery in the eastern corner of the Tamkang Middle School campus, where his own son was interred adjacent to him.[4] The major private Christian hospital in downtown Taipei is named Mackay Memorial Hospital, built in 1912 to replace the smaller Mackay Hospital he started in Tamsui in 1882. In recent years Mackay’s life has been celebrated by advocates of a Taiwanese identity and historical understanding that stands distinct from the narratives brought to the island by Japan and China.

On 30 June 2004, a large bust statue of George Leslie Mackay was dedicated outside the Oxford County offices in Woodstock, Ontario. The delegation from Taiwan in attendance included representatives from the Aletheia University and the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. The event was also attended by representatives of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, the United Church of Canada, local, regional, and national Canadian dignitaries, and a number of Mackay descendants from across North America. One of his grandchildren is Dr. John Ross Mackay.

In November 2006, a Canadian Television documentary was aired titled The Black Bearded Barbarian of Taiwan. It was broadcast in both Mandarin and English on OMNI 2 as part of their Signature Series.

Rohrer states that Mackay, “allowed himself to truly encounter and to be transformed by the people he sought to serve.” He gave the local Christians leadership roles in the churches, giving them perhaps more autonomy and freedom than any other western missionary to China in his period.[5]

Opera production in Taiwan[edit]

In 2008 Taiwan’s government invested in the production of the world’s first-ever Taiwanese/English-language opera based on Mackay’s life. Over a hundred opera singers and production crew from Europe, Asia, and the United States were brought for on the project. Mackay: The Black Bearded Bible Man had its world premier on 27 November 2008, at Taiwan’s National Theater and ran until 30 November.

Mackay: The Black Bearded Bible Man took more than five years to produce. Taiwanese composer Gordon S.W. Chin and librettist Joyce Chiou set out in 2002 to create an opera whose subject was drawn from Taiwanese lore and employed local settings. The large cast featured Thomas Meglioranza (baritone) as George Mackay, Chen Mei-Lin (soprano) as Mackay’s wife Tiuⁿ Chhang-miâ, and Choi Seung-Jin (tenor) as Giâm Chheng-hoâ, Mackay’s first disciple and follower in Taiwan. Chien Wen-Pin, a native of Taipei, conducted the National Symphony Orchestra (Taiwan). Lukas Hemleb directed the stage production.

Theatre production in Embro, Ontario, Canada[edit]

In 2018, a production of “Kai the Barbarian, the George Leslie Mackay Story” was performed from March 21–31 at Thistle Theatre in Embro, Ontario, Canada. Embro is located in Zorra Township where George Mackay was born and raised. The cast and crew consisted of local volunteers and professionals from Stratford, Ontario. The play was written by William Butt, born and raised near Embro, and directed by Edward Daranyi (music direction by Daniel Van Winden).

Personal[edit]

Mackay’s marriage to Tiuⁿ Chhang-miâ (Minnie Mackay) produced three children:

George William Mackay[edit]

George William Mackay (born 22 January 1882 – 20 July 1963) was a Canadian missionary in Taiwan, son of George Leslie Mackay, and father of J. Ross Mackay.[6][7] Mackay’s Taiwanese name is 偕叡廉; it is from his father’s first name 偕. In Yilan County, Taiwan, George Leslie Mackay preached to the people and built a church.

He was born in Tamsui, Taiwan and grew up there until 13. He then returned to Toronto with his father. He graduated from Clark University with a Master’s degree in Education Management. In 1948 he received an honorary doctorate in theology from Knox College.

He served as President of the Tamkang Junior High School, which he subsequently merged with Tamsui Girls School. After his father’s death, he changed Tamsui Girls School from a junior high school to a kindergarten.

Mackay may have died in Canada or possibly in Taiwan, where he may have been buried in Tamsui at the Mackay family’s tomb next to Tamkang Junior High.[6] The tomb may have since been removed.[8]

Memorials include:

  • Memorial Park[9]
  • Memorial Church[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b Campbell, William (1915). Sketches from Formosa. London: Marshall Brothers. p. 153. OL 7051071M.
  2. ^ Stainton, Michael (1 January 2007). “Relieving human misery”. Presbyterian Record. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  3. ^ Mackay 1895, p. 219
  4. ^ 國際化,雙語編排,文化整合,全球華人的雜誌, 台灣光華雜誌 Taiwan Panorama. “台灣光華雜誌 Taiwan Panorama – 國際化,雙語編排,文化整合,全球華人的雜誌”.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Rohrer, James M (Oct 1, 2010). “The Legacy of George Leslie Mackay”. International Bulletin of Missionary Research. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b “Dr George William Mackay”. Find a grave. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  7. ^ “RECORDS OF THE REV. GEORGE LESLIE MACKAY FAMILY” (PDF). THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN CANADA ARCHIVES. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  8. ^ “馬偕墓(馬偕家族墓園)”.
  9. ^ “偕叡廉紀念公園”.
  10. ^ “偕叡廉紀念教會”. 華人教會名錄 機構名錄.

Published works[edit]

External links[edit]

石美玉 – 中国医学界最早的女医师和教育家,上海市第九人民医院的创始人

石美玉(1873—-1954年),是中国医学界最早留学美国的女医师之一,二十世纪中国著名的女布道家。她1873年生于湖北黄梅,七岁时,因家境贫寒,随父亲到九江谋生。1896年毕业于密执安(Michigan)大学,归国后在九江创办但福医院及护士学校,并任中华医学会副会长。1920年自九江来上海创办伯特利医院(上海市第九人民医院前身)。

当时,美国卫理公会宣教士昊格珠在江西九江办了一所教会学校。由于其父母被卫理公会宣教士带领信主,石美玉就读于该校。一天,昊格珠见到石美玉聪明伶俐,在征得其父同意后,将她收养身边,同时收养的还有康成(江西九江人)。1880年(光绪六年)昊格珠返美,遂将她俩一同携往美国读书。石美玉到美国后,勤奋好学,仅在十年的时间里,就先后精通英语、日语、德语等数国语言,且对所学的数、理、化、绘画、音乐等诸多科目无一不精通。1892年,石美玉中学毕业后,以优异成绩考入美国当时第一流的名牌学府——密西根大学,时年19岁。进入大学后,她潜心医学,以图回国医治同胞肉体及灵魂的病痛。几年后,她以名列前茅的成绩,被授予博士学位。毕业后,她谢绝美国方面的挽留,于光绪二十六年回国。

回国后,她和但福德合作,在九江创办但福医院及护士学校。1906年,美国宣教士胡遵理来与石美玉同工。但福德医院业务兴盛起来,来找石医生求诊的病人,每月有三千人之多。这样的局面,当然必须有更多的人协助。石医生就训练护士为助手。可当时的课本多为洋文,中文课本紧缺,无法满足一般国人学习,她只好自己动手翻译。她不仅医治人的身体,还医治人的心灵。她除了教导护士们医药知识之外,还开办礼拜四的查经班。训练出来的人,自然是才德兼备,并爱人的灵魂,技术纯熟,服务爱人,关心失丧的灵魂。石美玉在九江得到普遍的信任和尊敬。有一段时间,她染病在家静养,九江知府出告示:禁止任何车马经过她住寓的街道,以免影响她养病。其受爱戴的程度,由此可见一斑。1915年,石美玉与伍连德、颜福庆等筹组中华医学会,曾担任副会长。1918年至1919年,她获得洛克菲勒基金会的资助,进入美国约翰·霍普金斯大学医学院研修。在美期间,她四处演讲,向美国教会介绍中国的情况,鼓励中国留学生回国服务。1920年石美玉回国,与吴格矩一起在上海组织创立了伯特利教会和伯特利医院,还开设了两间药房和一所护士学校,她们还在家中收养了36个贫穷的中国孩子。石美玉是产科专家,慕她之名前来学医的学生遍及全国各地,还有的来自越南、缅甸、新加坡和檀香山。至1937年,共有600名学生毕业获得了中华护士会证书,并深入民间服务。

1928年,山东爆发大灾荒,大量难民涌进上海。一天,石美玉接到电话,得知有300名孤儿即将到达上海。她在一番祷告之后,到车站接回100名孤儿,决意将他们收养。她克服种种困难,建立了孤儿院,附设小学和中学。这些孤儿长大后,她又将他们送入大学深造,其中不少人循着她的足迹,留学归来报效祖国。

抗战爆发后,原设在南市制造局路639号的伯特利医院被日军强占,乃迁至沪西白赛仲路(复兴西路)另设分院。医院派出医护人员每周到难民收容所和伤病医院义务进行救护工作,孤儿院则迁至贵州独山毕节。抗战胜利后,石美玉在美国积极筹划经费,在废墟上重建伯特利医院。1951年5月,石美玉请求上海市政府接管医院。1952年12月,伯特利医院更名为上海市第九人民医院。

石美玉不仅在医疗方面享有盛誉,同时她也是中国教会著名的女布道家。作为一个尊主为大的女子,她热心教会的福音事工。1918年8月19日,石美玉同余日章,陈维屏,诚静怡,胡素贞,蔡苏娟等七人,在牯岭莲谷夏令营,组成了中华国内布道会,由丁立美牧师任总干事。这是华人第一个布道组织,差遣宣教士在中华大地宣教,脚踪遍及边疆各地,对教会发展影响甚大。1920年,由于受当时盛行的自由神学影响,在华的卫理公会的信仰转变成为“现代派”。石美玉无法认同“不信派”的立场,遂与胡遵理一同离开了卫理公会。二人同到上海,创立了伯特利教会、伯特利神学院、伯特利医院及伯特利中学。翌年,中华医学会上海支会成立,被选为副会长。1922,石美玉购买制造局路639号内的民房及邻近39亩荒地,扩建医院,附设护士学校。除此之外还兴办了小学、孤儿院。1930年,从美国远道而来的卫理公会的亚斯伯里大学环球布道团参加伯特利夏令圣经会。来自彼岸的那些年轻人,全凭信心仰望神,供应他们一切需要。伯特利教会受圣灵感动,效法他们,于1931年2月,由计志文发起成立了“伯特利环球布道团”。神使用布道团,在中华大地燃起了复兴的火焰。布道团的脚踪遍及中国各省,属灵复兴也延及海外。期间石美玉除在她妹妹去世的时候,曾回九江但福德医院负责一段时间,大部分时间是在上海从事布道。抗战期间,石美玉和胡遵理到香港,把伯特利教会的事工伸展到香港,创办当时最有规模的伯特利神学院,并设有中学。学院造就了不少的青年,成为海外一代教牧的骨干。

石美玉也是一个终身未婚的美丽女子,她把最美的年华奉献给了她挚爱的医学事业和她的病人们。1954年12月30日,石美玉在美国加州静静地离开了人世,享年81岁。

九江市妇幼保健院(九江市儿童医院),其前身为美国基督教卫理公会创建的“但福德”医院,始建于1896年,现是一所三级甲等妇幼保健院

九江市卫生学校一所百年老校,创办于1901年,是由美国基督教协会卫理工会创建的。创始人为旅美华人石美玉女士,校名为但福德医院护士学校。几经历史变迁,新中国建立后,1951年,但福德医院护士学校与江西省第三医士学校合并为江西省九江市卫生学校。曾先后开设医士、检验士、药剂士、护士等专业。其中医士、护士专业曾列为全国全省重点专业,1980年11月5日国家教育部下文确定九江市卫校为全国重点中等专业学校。

中国最受尊敬的基督徒医生 | 拒绝裹足又留学读博,终身未婚的清朝传奇女子

文字:June | 整编:黑门
本文转载公众号:黑門
每个人的心里都有一个愿望清单,
这个愿望清单有多长,里面写着多少美好的事,只有每个人自己清楚。
可是,在有些人手里,这个愿望清单总是被推迟,被搁置,被遗弃,
被陈列在时间的阁楼里朽坏、腐烂,化成了粉末。
而有些人手里的愿望清单,一次次被刷新、被丰富、被实现,
被放在流血的荆棘中生了根、发了芽、长成了一片茂密的森林。
一百多年前的清朝,尽管当时西方风潮“人权自由主义”思想已东渐,但女人们普遍都还缠着足,笃信“无才便是德”的迂腐观念,相夫教子,垂手伺候在男人的身后才是“贤德的妇人”。至于出国留学,那简直是想都不敢想的事,堪称传奇中的传奇。
而当时偏偏就有这样一位年轻的中国女子,她大胆的迈出了令国人惊诧的,一双未裹足的“大脚”,漂洋过海去到美国学习医学知识,并以优异的成绩毕业回国,开办医院、建立孤儿院,收养孤儿。她也因此成为美国任何一个宣教机构都乐于委派的宣教士,这在中国基督徒中,是屈指可数的。请让我们记住她的名字 —— 石美玉
01
中国最早留学美国的医生
大学首位亚洲医学女博士
1873年,石美玉出生于湖北黄梅一个没落但十分温馨又相爱的小家庭中。她的父亲石宅嵎是江西省卫理公会最早的华人牧师之一,她的母亲是教会女校的校长,因为父母的基督信仰,所以她从未被要求裹足。石美玉从小就喜欢写愿望清单,大大的旧报纸,随手拾起的碳削,写的满满的。每次有愿望被实现后,她就会再想一个愿望填进去,如此反复,从未停歇。七岁时,由于家境太过贫寒,便随父亲到江西九江谋生。当时,美国卫理公会来华宣教士昊格珠 (Gertude Howe),在江西九江当地创办了一所教会学校。由于石美玉的父母是被卫理公会宣教士带领信主的,所以她便一直在教会学校学习、生活。
有一次,昊格珠见到石美玉与其他同期学习的小孩子差别很大,她十分好学又聪明伶俐,常常喜欢自己一个人钻研书本。此时,恰巧石美玉的父亲突然提出请求,希望昊格珠能帮助石美玉进入美国的医学院学医,在征得石美玉本人的同意后,昊格珠便将她收养在身边亲自教导。1880年(光绪六年)宣教士昊格珠因时局原因不得不返回美国,决定将石美玉一同带往美国读书。石美玉来到美国后,并没有被眼前的繁华新鲜世界所影响,反而更加勤奋学习。在十年的时间里,先后熟练掌握了英语、德语、日语、等多国语言,并且对所学的数、理、化、绘画、音乐等诸多科目表现出浓厚地学习兴趣,且无一不精通。就连昊格珠都难以置信,连连称赞自己发现了一块“瑰宝”。1892年,石美玉中学毕业后,时年19岁,以优异的成绩考入美国当时第一流的学府也是当时美国人口中的“科研摇篮地”——密歇根(Michigan)大学。进入大学后,她仿佛“疯了一般”,醉心医学,以图能尽快回国医治中国同胞肉体上的病痛。几年后,她以名列前茅的成绩,被授予博士学位,继续留校学习。平时,为了不引人注目,她在美国一直都是穿西式服装,但只要有表彰大会,她就会换上家人在临行前为她准备的传统中式服装,上台接受学校的嘉奖。1896年毕业典礼上,石美玉穿着粉色的中式旗袍,步履优雅地走上讲台,获得全场师生潮水般的掌声。她不仅是中国医学界最早留学美国的女医生,更成为密歇根大学最早获得医学博士学位的亚洲女性。
02
毅然放弃留美的“傻子”
跟随呼召回国医病宣教
她自信的站在台上,分享着自己已经完成的“愿望清单”,也透露了一些愿望清单上迫切需要完成的“大愿望”,第一个就是回国,创办医院救治同胞。在此之际,学校趁势抛出丰厚的橄榄枝,但她毫不犹豫地谢绝了,她的美国同学得知后十分不解,骂她是个“傻子”,白白浪费了其他人梦寐以求的大好机会。石美玉连半句话都没有为自己解释,她坚定心中上帝给她的异象:回中国!

很快便收拾好简单的行囊,回到了中国。当时和石美玉一同在密歇根大学学医,获得医学博士学位,并且执意回国的还有一位中国基督徒女子,她的名字叫康爱德。她们决定一起回到家乡,做出一些改变。两人刚落地,茶水还没得及喝一口,就被乡亲们请去救急,处理一宗难产手术。一位产妇怀的是双胞胎,但在第一个婴儿平安降生后,发生了宫缩停止的现象,如果抢救不当,另一个婴儿和产妇都会出现生命危险,当地有名的中医对此无计可施。
石美玉和康爱德俩人凭借精湛的医术,保住了产妇和婴儿的生命,这一下子就在十里八乡传了起来。很快石美玉和康爱德两位主内姊妹就动工开了一间小诊所,第一年,十里八乡甚至是外省的,来就诊的病人达 2000多人次,两年后,接待的病人就超过了5000人次。慕名而来的病人越来越对,原先的诊所一下子就显得十分狭小,连下脚的空地儿都没有。连日来,目睹到这一情况的石美玉,内心十分焦灼。她祷告祈求:“主啊,既然祢带领学医,又让我学成归来,现在就求你帮我开道路,我们需要扩充更大的场地,求你预备。”
03
向美国筹款建立教会医院
创办中国最早的护士学校
有一天,一次偶然的机会,石美玉决定写信给远在美国的朋友,请求他们捐款相助。因为她擅长交流,又很懂相处之道,在留学期间很受朋友欢迎,所以信件发出不久后就有了回应。当时的美国芝加哥名医 Dr.I.N.Danforth 为纪念其去世的夫人,愿意出资并委托石美玉在中国建造一所以其夫人名字命名的医院。
1901年12月,但福德医院(今为九江市妇幼保健院)建成投入使用,共拥有95张病床和当时最先进完善的设备,石美玉出任该院院长。看着眼前的这一切,这个内心强大的女子,再也忍不住了,她躲在一旁嚎啕大哭,不住的说着:“主啊,感谢祢,主啊,感谢你……” 即便如此,她并没有停止为主作工。
与此同时,为了传授医学知识,培养中国女性护理人才,让更多的人受益,她又创办了但福德护士学校(今为九江学院护理学院)。石美玉日夜不停的亲自手编教材,把英文医学书籍翻译成中文、投资购买教学设备,又利用绘画的天赋,画了一幅又一幅人体解剖图。还积极争取美国中华医学基金会(CMB)的资助机会,并选派优异的护士出国留学。但福德医院护士学校是我国最早的护士学校之一,这些学生们白天和医护人员一起在医院从事护理实践工作,晚上加班加点和石美玉学习医护理论知识,真正做到了学以致用。
石美玉与但福德医院的医护人员毕业照
石美玉个人非常注重培养学生们的独立判断能力和实际工作能力,在九江的20多年时间里,她一边治病救人,一边潜心培养了500多名护士。其中,中国护士之母、中华护士会首任中方会长伍哲英,就毕业于九江但福德护士学校,她本人在学习期间,受到石美玉的精心栽培。
04
日夜繁重的工作终究压垮了她
“我要为主的做的不止是这些”
她在神的带领下,使得整个医院的医护人员专业水平直线上升,但她并没有满足于此,为了医院能够更良好的长远发展下去,石美玉祷告决定赴美筹募资金。因着她虔诚的信仰态度和坚定的服侍意志,再加上但福德医院在美国的声誉也非常好,所以得到了大批奉献注入。回国后第一时间,她就用这笔钱将医院扩大了一倍,接诊病人激增,仅当时一个月就诊治了2743名病人。
石美玉忘我的付出不仅得到当地乡绅的热烈响应,更是获得了当时兴起的各地民族主义改革者的大力宣扬,信任和尊敬也接踵而至。有一次,她生病在家休息,九江知府竟然主动出告示:禁止任何车马经过她居住处门前的街道,以免影响她养病。1906年,石美玉的胞妹石安娜突然患病去世,繁重的工作加上多年奔波饮食不规律,也导致石美玉盲肠炎发作,她不得不暂停手下的工作前往美国做手术。
手术之后,她顾不上休养,利用这次难得的机会四处演讲,向美国教会分享她心中的异象和中国教会的真实需要,同时还鼓励那些在美国的中国留学生坚定信仰、钻研学术,日后能被主使用,回国服侍。她向所遇见的每个人,称赞她的那群可爱的护士们:
“她们对主充满信心和爱,将这项舍己的工作作为她们毕生的事业;她们不图任何回报和奖励,只求自己所做的能蒙主喜悦,她们经历很多人没办法想象的艰难困苦,只为将荣耀归给主,我为能与这样一群爱主的人一起作工,而感到无比自豪!”
每每说完这些,她都热泪盈眶,这泪水是感恩的泪,因为她深知自己不是一个人在奔跑,而是有相同信仰的一群人,一起携手奔跑。“我要为主的做的不止是这些。”这是她最常对自己说的一句话。因为始终持有这个信念,她更是做出了一系列具有深远历史意义的重大举措。
05
史无前例的向农村派“福音护士” 
首次把现代医疗输入到中国农村
1911年辛亥革命爆发后,石美玉积极参与并协助洛克菲勒基金会资助中国发展现代医疗事业,在这样的背景下,西医逐渐成为中国城市医疗服务的主流。但在当时,以农村为大多数人口居住地的大环境下,新生婴儿的死亡率仍旧居高不下。非常爱孩子的石美玉目睹这一切后,时常忍不住,暗暗啜泣。
为此,在多次祷告寻求上帝的带领之后,她开始了一项史无前例的计划 —— 向农村派遣“福音护士”。因此,她也被称为是“中国最早制定一些列计划,把现代医疗服务输入到农村的人”。她一鼓作气,向毗邻九江的安徽太湖、湖北黄梅的农村偏远地区派遣护士建立小型连排诊所,并安排由技术过硬的实习医生定期轮换下乡巡回医疗救治,提供发放药品、接种疫苗、难产接生等基本医疗服务。石美玉也经常亲自带领要踏入医护岗位的学生一起深入农村,诊治病人。
除了医院护理外,石美玉也很重视公共卫生护理,不定期频繁组织护士到各个社区传播公共卫生知识,帮助乡民。从1915年到1920年,5年间,她多次在城乡地区举办公共卫生讲座及实地操作,内容包括结核病卫生预防、妇女产前保健、婴儿喂养指导、疫苗预防与接种、鼠疫预防、消灭蚊蝇、关注环境卫生、家庭卫生和个人卫生等。她每周一次组织安排人员到教会学校亲自授课培训,据资料记载,最多时近800名已婚妇女参加。
众所周知,今天,社区护理已经成为社区卫生保健的重要组成部分。我们都不应该忘记的是,在一个世纪前,石美玉为之进行的探索具有开拓性和前瞻性意义,她是我国早期护理专业的奠基者和先行人。正因为她这一些列重大深远的行动,才使得在当时那个环境下,更多的农村新生婴儿得以健康活泼地成长。“别担心,只管祈求,经费会有的,主会帮助我们的。”每次只要出现资金短缺的状况,石美玉就会这样耐心的说着安慰每一位同工,并带领他们开口祷告,凭信心去走每一步。
至始至终,石美玉都清楚的明白,她的最终目的是为了传扬福音,借着手能医治人身体病痛的有利条件,进一步做传福音的工作,这才是真正要做的。她热心教会的福音事工,为教会和社会培养了一大批本土的教会领袖。
06
联合创办首个华人布道会,缩衣节食
凭信建教会、医院、学校,收养孤儿
1918年石美玉和余日举、陈维屏、蔡苏娟、诚静怡、胡素贞等7人,在庐山牯岭组成了中华国内布道会,这是华人自发的第一个布道组织。
1918年底,石美玉获得洛克菲勒基金会的资助,进入美国约翰·霍普金斯大学医学院研修。
并于1920年完成研修后回国,辞去了卫理公会的职务,与昊格珠、美国女传教士胡遵理一起,在上海组织创办了伯特利教会和伯特利基督教医院,开设了两间药房和一所护士学校,她们还收养了36个流浪孤儿。
同样,伯特利医院初在刚创办的阶段也是相当艰辛,医院地址位于外交部一位部长的老房子里,那里因为长期“被鬼和老鼠占据”,没有人敢住,于是,石美玉通过不断募捐来改善医院的基础设施。募款时她常常身无分文,据她身边的林牧师回忆,由于美国那边的募款中断,上海当地的基督徒和慈善家的捐助又十分有限。在那几年里,他带领着伯特利的教职同工们,节衣缩食,勉强维持着二三百人的衣食生计,使大家在长达四年多的时间里免于饿死。每当一次又一次陷入资金短缺的境地时,她就一次又一次地默默向主祷告:“经费会有的,主会按着所需赐予我们的。”每次祷告后,上帝都会差遣陌生的奉献者,意外又惊喜地送给她所需刚刚好的财物,她也在上帝的恩典中愈发刚强的传福音。
07
致力于解放封建旧俗对女性压迫
公然反抗政府对基督教课程限制
1925年,中华妇女节制联谊会在上海成立,石美玉任第一届主席。该会是世界基督教妇女节制会的分支机构,以节制烟酒、女性解放、兴办慈善等三大事业为宗旨,反对蓄婢、纳妾、缠足、束胸等各种恶习。她提出女性合理维权、女性经济独立、女性婚姻自由平等多项主张,为女性在家庭及公共事务中发挥作用搭建了有力平台。
在1928年,国民政府下令,所有教会学校的负责人必须由中国人担任,且将圣经课程设为选修课,而非必修课。石美玉拒绝了第二个要求,她坚持哪怕以政府不予注册为代价,学生也应必修圣经课程内容。尽管她公然不顾后果的违抗政府命令,但同为基督徒的民国第一夫人宋美龄姊妹对她的坚持深表嘉许。虽然创办的学校因此没有取得注册资格,可上帝更加的祝福在真理上坚守她,学校学生人数依然逐年倍增,在三十年代已经超过了200名。 石美玉常常望着教室里渴慕学习上帝话语的学生们出神,没有人知道她在想些什么,就像没有人知道她接下来要做的这件令人敬佩的事一样。
08
在饥荒中建立最大的孤儿院
并将每一个孩子都送进大学

1928年,山东地区爆发连续性大灾荒,大量难民涌入上海,石美玉得知有300名孤儿即将到达上海,在安静地祷告之后,她的愿望清单里又多了很多个愿望。而后,她直接赶到车站接回100名孤儿,没有丝毫犹豫的降他们收养了。她啃下了一个又一个难啃的硬骨头,建立了当时最大的孤儿院,附带设立了小学和中学,这些孤儿们长大后,石美玉又将他们一个个都进了大学深造。但她最看重的依旧是人灵魂的得救。1931年2月,她与著名布道家计志文、宋尚节等人同工,发起并支持伯特利巡回布道团,派遣宣教士分赴全国各地深入偏远地区宣教布道,脚踪遍及边疆雪域各地,对后来乃至今天的教会发展影响甚大。

1937年,抗战爆发后,原来设立在南市制造局路的伯特利医院被日军强占,则被迫迁到上海法租界内的白赛仲路。伯特利孤儿院也被毁的不成模样,被迫迁移内地,伯特利神学院被迫迁往香港九龙嘉林边道。

1941年,太平洋战争爆发后,日军进占香港,伯特利神学院无法继续正常开展上课,师生分批撤往贵州毕节。而伯特利医院则因租界沦陷,被迫逼停所有运营。1945年抗战胜利后,石美玉在美国积极筹募资金,在废墟上燃起希望,重建了伯特利医院。1947年3月,伯特利神学院重新迁回香港恢复上课,一切有有了新方向。此时,石美玉的愿望清单里又多出了无数条新的愿望,她拿出一切积蓄,开办了免费的平民小学,为难民子女提供教育。
09
放下自以为应得的权利
一生单为荣耀上帝而活

1951年,伯特利医院被政府接管,并于第二年更名为上海第九人民医院,2005年更名为上海交通大学医学院附属第九人民医院。

基督教伯特利医院(现上海交大附属第九医院)
从1898年至1949年,51年间,石美玉先后在国内创办医院、学校及医护学校达15所,遍及全国近10个省市和地区,收养残疾儿童、弃婴、孤儿等近千人。此后,年近八旬的她远走异国他乡,仍然孜孜不倦地传播福音,心中常常惦念故乡的一切,她在美国和香港分别引导协助建立了伯特利教会,专门培养福音宣教士。直到今日,在港台以及海外,伯特利教会仍然在为主发光发热。石美玉,就像她的姓一样,爱主的心坚定不变到年岁终了;又如她的名一般,心境通透、纯粹到容不下一粒不爱主的因子。
1954年12月30日,石美玉安静又祥和地安息主怀,享年81岁。一个女子,终身未婚,把最美的年华都献给了中国的医学事业,更是为神国的福音摆上自己的一生。在这个动荡不安的现实社会,从不问究竟,为那福音高扬,倾尽所有,默默无闻地奉献一生。“那美好的仗我已经打过了,当跑的路我已经跑尽了,所信的道我已经守住了。”— 提摩太后书4:7
反观现在的我们,很多时候都是,我所知的我不愿作,我愿作的我不能作,我能作的却不愿作。快走吧!在浓雾拦住双脚之前、在美景遮住双眼以先、在虚谎掩盖真理之时,在为什么勇气和信心的问题总是被误以为是时间的问题,而那些沉重的、抑郁的、不得已的,总是被冠以叫做生活本身之时,加紧脚步快跑跟随主吧!就是从我粗砺的一生中榨尽青春年华,悉数奉献于主,仍觉不够。
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石美玉密友康成
摘自百度
著名女医疗宣教士、医学教育家、西医学先驱。
康成于1873年生于江西九江一个贫苦家庭里,父母亲具传统的封建观念,重男轻女。在她岀生前,家里已有五个女孩。正当父母热切盼望男婴诞生之际,康成来到这个世界,父母的失望之情可想而知。故从她诞生之日起,就成为这个家庭中不受欢迎的人,更为这个原本贫穷的家庭增添了经济负担。正当此时,一位在九江的美国女宣教士昊格矩(Miss Gertrude Howe)伸岀援手,收养了这个可怜、无辜的小女孩。在那种家庭处境下,康成父母当然也乐得将女孩送她抚养。这样,康成就成为昊格矩的义女。
几年之后,康成进入昊教士所创办的九江儒励女校(Rulison-Fish Memorial School)读书,在那里与石美玉相遇,结为朋友,此后二人成为终生的密友与同工。1882年,也就是在康成9岁时,随昊教士到美国,曾一度在旧金山的一所小学就读。二年后,又囬到中国。因昊教士被差往华西开拓美以美会的宣教事工,康成就随她在重庆住了两年。13岁时,她们才又囬到九江,康成再入儒励女校继续学业。
1892年,昊教士带康成和石美玉赴美国读书,二人双双考入密西根大学医学院,并共同苦读寒窗四载,于1896年春顺利获得毕业文凴。随后她们到芝加哥一所医院实习半年。同年秋,她们又一起接受美以美会国外妇女宣道会的差遣,以医疗宣教士的身份囬到九江服务。
她们一囬到九江就开始了医疗宣教工作。她们起初设立了只有一间诊室的医疗所,就在这间诊所里,两位年轻的女医师在短短的十个月内,竟诊治了2300多位病人,而且还有300多次外岀巡诊。她们高超的医术和仁爱之心很快就赢得当地百姓的信赖与爱戴。1898年,石美玉在芝加哥的一个好友,著名医师但福德(Dr. Isaac Newton Danforth)慷慨捐助钜资,帮助她们在九江建立一所妇幼医院。经过一年多艰苦努力,医院几近落成。正当此时,义和团之乱兴起,基督教在华事业受到很大冲击,石美玉父亲亦未能幸免于难。康成她们被迫离开九江,避难于日本约一年之久。1901年乱定之后,她们才囬到九江。是年12月7日,九江妇幼医院(Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Hospital)正式落成启用。
为九江医疗宣教事业奠下良好基础之后,康成随义母昊教士于1903年离开九江到南昌开辟新的宣教工场。她先在南昌设立诊所,1905年新的医疗所落成。经过她多年的努力操持,医疗事业得到很大扩展。据1911年统计,经其诊所救治的病人已达八仟多人。除医务工作外,康成也积极参与宣教及社会改革工作,特别热衷于中国医疗教育事业。1905年她岀席了在上海召开的中国教育协会第五届会议,并发表了有关医学教育的专题演讲。
1908年,康成利用长期休假的机会再度赴美,进入美国西北大学攻读文学。1910年春,她以女青年会代表的身份,参加在德国柏林召开的年会。会后转赴英国,在从事热带疾病研究的同时,完成其在西北大学的学士论文。1911年1月,她获得西北大学的文学学士学位。同年3月返囬南昌。
1911年,康成筹划多年的、一个拥有四十多个病床的妇幼医院落成,并开始服务于民众。同年10月,武昌革命爆发。在此期间,康成的医院照旧营业,本着济世救人的宗旨,抢救交战双方的伤员。
康成有一颗宽广的基督徒仁爱之心,特别对那些贫苦的百姓,她常常免费施医。因此医院不久岀现亏损,财政危机。为偿付债务,康成自我牺牲,远赴天津担任医师,因为那边的待遇优厚。经过三年时间的劳苦,终于还清债款。她这才返囬南昌,重掌医院院务。当地政府为表彰她的杰岀贡献,特地拨发两笔基金给她,使妇幼医院得以继续向前发展。长期过度劳累,使康成心力交瘁,健康大受亏损。最后终于被疾病所击倒,于1930年在上海溘然长逝,时年仅57岁。